Ketersediaan N, P, dan K pada Lahan Sawah di Kecamatan Labuhan Haji Barat Kabupaten Aceh Selatan

Khairul Ummadi, Hifnalisa Hifnalisa, Sufardi Sufardi

Abstract


Pengurasan dan berkurangnya kadar hara tanah di dalam tanah sawah dapat terjadi manakala jumlah unsur hara yang diangkut saat panen melebihi jumlah yang disediakan melalui pemupukan. Proses degradasi tersebut tidak hanya berpotensi mengancam jumlah hasil panen padi, tetapi juga berpengaruh pada kualitas tanah. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengevaluasi ketersediaan unsur hara N, P, dan K pada Lahan Sawah di Kecamatan Labuhan Haji Barat Kabupaten Aceh Selatan. Sampel tanah diambil secara komposit pada lapisan atas 0-20 cm pada 7 (tujuh) lokasi pengamatan di dua wilayah desa mewakili kecamatan tersebut yaitu Desa Blang Poroh dan Desa Iku Lhung. Ketersediaan unsur hara yang dikaji meliputi: N total (metode Kjeldahl), P2O5 dan K2O total (ekstrak HCl 25%), K dapat ditukar atau K-dd (metode 1N NH4OAc pH7) dan pH H2O. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa tanah sawah di Kecamatan Labuhan Haji Barat memiliki karakteristik kimia yang sangat bervariasi. Secara umum, nilai pH tanah bervariasi dari 5,00-6,46 (masam hingga agak masam), sedangkan cadangan P2O5 sangat tinggi (71,76-281,52 mg/100 g). Kandungan P tersedia, K total dan K dapat ditukar untuk Desa Blang Paroh secara umum sangat rendah, sedangkan di Desa Iku Lhung P tersedia cukup tinggi (30,1±16,5 mg kg-1), sementara K total tanah tergolong sedang. K dapat ditukar (K-dd) secara umum sangat rendah hingga rendah (0,04-0,14 cmol kg-1). Rekomendasi pemupukan tanah sawah dengan kriteria kesuburan rendah di lokasi penelitian dapat digunakan pupuk Urea 200-250 kg ha-1, SP-36 sekitar 50 kg ha-1, dan  KCl 50-100 kg ha-1.

Availability of N, P, and K in Paddy Fields in Labuhan Haji Barat Sub-district, Aceh Selatan Regency

Depletion and reduction of soil nutrient levels in paddy fields can occur when the amount of nutrients transported during harvest exceeds the amount provided through fertilization. This degradation process not only has the potential to threaten the amount of rice harvest but also affects the quality of the soil. This research aims to evaluate the availability of N, P, and K nutrients in rice fields in Labuhan Haji Barat sub-district, Aceh Selatan Regency. Soil samples were taken compositely in the top layer of 0-20 cm at 7 (seven) observation locations in two village areas representing the sub-district, namely Blang Poroh Village and Iku Lhung Village. The availability of nutrients studied includes total N (Kjeldahl method), total P2O5 and K2O (25% HCl extract), exchangeable K or exch. K (1N NH4OAc pH7 method) and pH H2O. The results show that rice fields in Labuhan Haji Barat sub-district have very varied chemical characteristics. In general, soil pH values vary from 5.00-6.46 (acid to slightly acidic), while the total of soil P2O5 is very high (71.76-281.52 mg/100 g). The available P, total K, and exchangeable K for Blang Paroh Village is generally very low, whereas in Iku Lhung Village the available P is quite high (30.1 ± 16.5 mg kg-1), while total soil K is classified as moderate. Exchangeable K (exch. K) is generally very low to low (0.04-0.14 cmol kg-1). Recommendations for fertilizing paddy fields with low fertility criteria at the research location are 200-250 kg ha-1 of Urea, around 50 kg ha-1 of SP-36, and 50-100 kg ha-1 of KCl.


Keywords


Tanah sawah, nitrogen, fosfor, kalium, rekomendasi pupuk

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.17969/jimfp.v8i4.27956

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E-ISSN: 2614-6053 2615-2878 Statistic Indexing | Citation


Alamat Tim Redaksi:
Fakultas Pertanian,Universitas Syiah Kuala
Jl. Tgk. Hasan Krueng Kalee No. 3, Kopelma Darussalam,
Banda Aceh, 23111, Indonesia.
Email:jimfp@usk.ac.id