Kualitas Kimia Tanah pada Lahan Kopi Arabika Organik dan Anorganik di Kecamatan Bebesen Kabupaten Aceh Tengah

Yamsil Muhammad, Ilyas Ilyas, Sufardi Sufardi

Abstract


Abstrak. Pertanian organik merupakan salah satu pendekatan baru dalam sistem pertanian berkelanjutan. Meningkatnya permintaan produk pertanian organik telah mendorong petani dan pelaku usaha untuk beralih ke sistem pertanian organik sebagaimana yang saat ini dikembangkan pada kopi arabika di Aceh Tengah. Studi ini difokuskan untuk menilai kualitas kimia tanah pada dua areal kebun kopi arabika yang dikelola secara organik dan anorganik. Lokasi studi ini terdapat di di Gampong Blang Gele Kecamatan Bebesen Kabupaten Aceh Tengah pada koordinat 4037’57.18”LU 96048’25.16”BT dengan luas areal masing-masing sekitar 5.000 meter persegi. Pengambilan sampel tanah dilakukan pada titik-titik sampel pewakil dari masing-masing kebun kopi arabika dengan menggunakan bor tanah. Sampel tanah yang diambil adalah sampel tanah lapisan atas (0–20 cm) dan sampel lapisan tanah bawah (20–40 cm). Hasil analisis tanah menunjukkan bahwa pengelolaan kopi arabika secara organik memberikan pengaruh yang lebih baik terhadap kualitas tanah dibandingkan pengelolaan secara anorganik. Beberapa sifat kimia tanah seperti pH (H2O), K dapat ditukar (K-dd), KTK dan kejenuhan basa (KB) mempunyai kualitas yang lebih tinggi pada lahan kopi arabika organik dibandingkan lahan kopi arabika anorganik. Kendala utama pada lahan kopi arabika organik adalah rendahnya P tersedia, sedangkan pada lahan kopi anorganik ada dua kendala yaitu pH tanah masam dan kejenuhan basa yang rendah. Pemberian bahan amandemen organik seperti kompos, biochar, dan pupuk hayati dapat dianjurkan untuk mengatasi beberapa permasalah pada lahan kopi arabika tersebut.

Soil Chemical Quality on Organic and Inorganic Arrabica Coffee Land in Bebesen Subdistric, Central Aceh 

Abstract. Organic farming is one of the new approaches in sustainable farming systems. The demand for organic agricultural products has encouraged farmers and business actors to switch to organic farming systems as developed for Arabica coffee in Central Aceh today. This study aims to assess the chemical quality of the soil in Arabica coffee plantations that are managed organically and inorganically. The location of this study is in Gampong Blang Gele, Bebesen District, Central Aceh Regency at coordinates 4037'57.18"N 96048'25.16"E with an area of about 5,000 square meters each. Soil sampling was carried out at representative sample points from each Arabica coffee plantation using a soil auger. Soil samples were taken from topsoil samples (0–20 cm) and subsoil samples (20–40 cm). The results of soil analysis showed that organic Arabica coffee management had a better effect on soil quality than inorganic management. Some soil chemical properties such as pH, exchangeable K, CEC, and base saturation (KB) have higher quality in organic Arabica coffee fields compared to inorganic Arabica coffee fields. The main obstacle in organic Arabica coffee fields is the low available P, while in inorganic coffee fields there are two constraints, namely acid soil pH and low base saturation. The provision of organic amendments such as compost, biochar, and biofertilizers can be recommended to overcome some of the problems in the Arabica coffee field.


Keywords


Kopi Arabika; Pertanian Organik; Kualitas Kimia Tanah;Arabica Coffee; Organic Farming; Soil Chemistry Quality

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.17969/jimfp.v7i3.20942

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Alamat Tim Redaksi:
Fakultas Pertanian,Universitas Syiah Kuala
Jl. Tgk. Hasan Krueng Kalee No. 3, Kopelma Darussalam,
Banda Aceh, 23111, Indonesia.
Email:jimfp@usk.ac.id